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Phytosterols, also called plant sterols or stanol esters, are specialized compounds found in plants that are structurally similar to cholesterol found in humans.


2-Methylenebutyrolactone, also known as α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) (Tulipalin A), belongs to the class of sesquiterpene lactone family and is considered as cyclic analog of most common vinyl monomer methyl methacrylate (MMA).


3-Methylpyrazole (3-MP) is a weak or non-inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase.

Protoporphyrin IX

Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is a heterocyclic organic compound, which consists of four pyrrole rings, and is the final intermediate in the heme biosynthetic pathway.


Neferine, a natural component of Nelumbo nucifera, has antitumor efficiency in cancer.


Citropten is a natural organic compound which belongs to coumarins and derivatives class.


Melezitose, also spelled melicitose, is a nonreducing trisaccharide sugar that is produced by many plant sap eating insects.


Pyritinol (Pyrithioxin) is a neurotropic agent which reduces permeability of blood-brain barrier to phosphate. It has no vitamin B6 activity.


Cinene (Limonene, Dipentene) is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in oil of citrus fruit peels. It is usually used to make fragrances and flavors.

Methyl Dihydrojasmonate

Methyl dihydrojasmonate is a flavouring ingredien with the smell vaguely similar to jasmin.


Citral is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde present in the oils of several plants. It is an aroma compound used in perfumery for its citrus effect and is also used as a flavor and for fortifying lemon oil.


O-Phospho-L-serine, a molecule that mimics the phosphatidylserine head group and partially blocks microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, is a specific group III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist.

Calcium Folinate

Calcium folinate is a metabolically active, reduced form of folic acid that is rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver to other folic acid derivatives.

Hydroferulic Acid

Hydroferulic acid, also known as Dihydroferulic acid, is classified as a member of the phenylpropanoic acids. It is slightly soluble in water and acidic.


D-Arabinose is a reducing sugar useful as a substrate in analysis of arabinose isomerases and synthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid in yeast.