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D-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins and is converted enzymatically into D-glucose for metabolism or polysaccharides for storage. It accelerates senescence in invertebrates and mammals and has been used as a model for aging.

Hydroxytyrosol Acetate

Hydroxytyrosol acetate (HTy-Ac), an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenol, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.


Panaxatriol is a triterpene sapogenin originally found in species of Panax (ginseng) and exhibits anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and antioxidative activities.


Eupatilin, a major flavonoid from Artemisia plants, possesses various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, and anti-oxidation activity.


Panaxadiol is a triterpene sapogenin originally found in species of Panax (ginseng) and exhibits anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and antioxidative activities. It inhibits Ca2+ channels, decreasing channel open time and open state probability in vitro and displaying anti-arrhythmic potential.


Rosavin, a cinnamyl alcohol glycoside found in the plant Rhodiola rosea, possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic activities.


Madecassoside is the main active triterpene constituent of Centella asiatica herbs, a traditional Chinese medicine for wound healing and scar management.


Isoquercitrin, a flavonoid compound with anticancer activity isolated from Bidens bipinnata L, is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin that acts downstream of the β-catenin nuclear translocation.

Eleutheroside B

Eleutheroside B (syringin) is a phenylpropanoid glycoside first isolated from A. senticosus and has neuroprotective, tonic, adaptogenic, and immune-modulating properties.

Baohuoside I

Baohuoside I (also known as Icariside II) is a flavonoid isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It may exert cytotoxic effect via the ROS/MAPK pathway.


1-Deoxynojirimycin is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and most commonly found in mulberry leaves. It has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus.

Carnosic Acid

Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene, endowed with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. It is increasingly used within food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries.

Echinocystic Acid

Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs, displays a range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.


6-Gingerol is the active constituent of fresh ginger known to exhibit a variety of biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation.


Loganin is an iridoid glycoside first isolated from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica, a member of the Loganiaceae family. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of BACE1 with IC50 of 47.97 μM an also inhibits AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 3.95 μM and 33.02 μM, respectively.


Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a nutrient with unique cell membrane actions and diverse clinical benefits with excellent safety and tolerability.